BUNGARUS MULTICINCTUS MULTICINCTUS

Many-Banded Krait

雨傘節

保育等級: 保育類 (第二級)

劇毒!!

 

相關影片

未成年的雨傘節

覓食中的雨傘節

在水溝尋找食物的雨傘節

雨傘節慢步

 

鄉野調查

大雨傘節

黑白雨傘節

雨傘節

雨傘寶貝

大雨傘節

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家族 蝙蝠蛇科,亞種。 Elapidae, subfamily Elapinae

 

最長尺寸 180 cm

 

台灣棲地分布 遍布全台、金門、和馬祖、低海拔1000公尺
以上森林、竹林、沼澤地區及居家附近。
(分布地圖)

 

世界棲地分布

緬甸,寮國,越南,泰國,台灣,韓國,中國(海南,安徽,四川,廣東,廣西,湖南,湖北,雲南,貴州,江西,浙江,福建)

 

外觀描述

Medium size; total length up to 180 cm. There are 15-17 rows of scales, which are smooth and glossy; one row of large hexagonal scales runs along the vertebral line. Head is a broad oval, body is moderately slender and slightly compressed; tail is short. Eye is small and bead-like; iris is blue-black and indistinct since it blends with the dark head. Pupil is round and also blue-black, and blends with rest of the eye. Tongue is red to flesh-colored, with a red stem and diffuse gray branches. The upper head is black and the lower part of supralabials cream to dark white. The fangs are short, rigid, and located in the upper jaw between eye and nose. A distinct pattern of regular black and white/mottled gray bands runs along the entire upper body. The anterior black bands are generally broader than the white bands. ** Ventral head and neck are dirty white or clouded with diffuse gray pigment; the infralabials may possess longitudinal narrow bars of pigment on the inner margins. Anterior section of the Ventral body is dirty white to cloudy gray, while the posterior section is progressively darker. Dorsal bands extend onto outer fifth to third of the ventrals. Underside of tail bears a continuation of dorsal bands. Anal scale is whole and the subcaudals are not divided. There is a wide range in coloration in this species. The bands of some individuals are light gray to light blue gray, light tan, or practically nonexistent.

 

生態描述

雨傘節屬於夜行性蛇類,通常棲息在潮濕的山坡與農業開墾地附近。以青蛙、蜥蜴、魚、鼠、蛇(甚至是同種類的蛇)或是蛇蛋等為食。牠們的交配季節約在八九月之間;雌蛇將會在春末與夏天生產,每次將產下一窩3-20顆,每顆大小約1.6-1.9 * 3-5 cm的蛇蛋。而幼體出生時大約會有25 cm左右的長度。

雨傘節可產生除了澳洲毒蛇之外所有陸生毒蛇中最強大的毒液。被咬傷的傷口並不顯眼,而且傷口也無腫脹與血流不止的現象。由於起初只有在傷口有著輕微的麻癢,傷者往往連自己被咬傷都未曾發覺。但是在短短的幾小時甚至是幾分鐘後,傷者的視力將開始模糊,並且產生抽筋、痙攣以及肌肉麻痺與呼吸困難等現象,這時神經毒液已經開始生效了。而遭到咬傷後未接受血清治療者的死亡率高達85%。

還好雨傘節並沒有很高的攻擊性,除非遭受到威脅或是挑釁才會做出攻擊行為。當牠們不安的時候,將會凍結動作以隱藏自己,或是趁機逃離。

其中最著名的受害者是一位美國專門研究蝙蝠蛇科環蛇屬的 Dr. Joseph "Joe" Slowinski。2001年9月,他在緬甸偏遠地區做一項深度研究時, Dr. Joseph "Joe" Slowinski 遭受一隻未成年雨傘節咬傷。由於環境的偏遠,且其他隊員出外考察而將他孤立,使得他無法得到適當的救助來脫離死亡的魔掌。最後在被咬傷後28小時毒性發作身亡。(Wikipedia)

 

學名與俗名

Bungarum = 孟加拉語中意指地面上的蛇;

multicinctus = 很多環節

雨傘節、台灣克雷特、百節蛇、白節蛇、 簸箕甲、手巾蛇

附註

在光線昏暗的地方,溫馴的白梅花蛇 (Lycodon ruhstrati ruhstrati) 和雨傘節非常相似,這使得許多白梅花死於害怕毒蛇的人類手中。但是在充足的光線下,危險的雨傘節有著不能忽略的特徵:黑白分明且平整的間隔環帶,與三角形的斷體截面;而白梅花蛇則有著淺灰褐色與黑色交錯的環帶,且環帶交錯的部分較不顯明且呈現鋸齒狀。 

相關連結

Reptile Database

Wikipedia

In Memory of Joe Slowinski

翻譯:周信甫

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