ENHYDRIS CHINENSIS

Chinese Water Snake, Chinese Rice Paddy Snake

水蛇

保育等級: 保育類 (第二級)

微毒

enhydris chinensis

 

鄉野調查

野外唐水蛇

 

MORE PHOTOS

晝伏夜出的唐水蛇 - 轉自 自然生活記趣

史上最難拍的蛇~唐水蛇 - 轉自 小勛's blog

像豬鼻子青蛙的唐水蛇 - 轉自 小青蛇的小秘密)

唐水蛇 - 轉自 探索自然

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家族

黃頜蛇科,水蛇亞科

Colubridae, subfamily Homalopsinae

 

最大體長 80 cm

 

台灣棲地分佈

早期台灣全島和金門海拔500公尺以下可見,不過目前只剩在台北、桃園與金門有發現的記錄了。瀕危。

 

 

世界棲地分佈

南中國(海南,安徽,福建,廣東,廣西,湖南,湖北,江西,江蘇省,浙江省),台灣,越南。

 

外觀描述

 

Small snake; total length up to 80 cm. There are 17-25 (around 21 at mid-body) rows of smooth and very glossy scales. Head is broad, slightly triangular; body is short and stout, usually somewhat flattened; tail is short. Both nostrils (with a lid each) and eyes face upward. Eye is small, beady, and bulging; the iris is brown to dark gray brown, inconspicuous since it blends with color of upper head and the pupil is round, black, surrounded by brown ring. The tongue stem is red to flesh-colored with diffuse black pigments, fork tips gray to light gray. The nasals are not separated; there is only one internasal. Upper head is uniform gray brown to brown and the edge of mouth is dirty white or cream. Upper body and tail is gray brown to olive brown, with scattered spots of black pigment on dorsal and lateral surfaces where some spots align to form broken longitudinal lines and may turn into intact lines at head and neck. A longitudinal stripe, involving first to fourth scale rows, of dull yellow, orange, dark salmon or a combination of these, extends from head onto base of tail. Ventral head is dirty white to dark dirty yellow, darkened by diffuse black pigment. Ventral body is dirty white to dirty yellow, with anterior half to two-thirds of each scale pigmented to form prominent dark cross bands from neck to anus. Anal scale is divided and subcaudals are paired.

 

生態描述

水蛇亞科(Homalopsine)通常都被歸類在黃頜蛇科底下的亞科中,而所有的水蛇亞科家族成員,在鼻孔都擁有瓣膜可以徹底隔絕水氣的入侵,以助於牠們在水下的生活。而大多數的成員在頭頂也都擁有朝天的小眼,特化擴大的上頜骨牙齒與溝巢,以及一些相同的解剖特徵。這些都可以說明牠們是來自同一個祖先。 (Source)

唐水蛇是為夜行性的物種,常在淡水邊被人發現,像是池塘、溝渠和水田間。牠是台灣蛇中唯一具有在鹹水中生存能力的,例如在關渡自然公園的水塘中就有這樣的情況發生。雖然說牠間都在水中度過,但偶爾再大雨後的溼泥地上亦可發現其蹤影。

魚和青蛙是為其主食。胎生。母蛇在八月和九月間產下一窩 3 - 21 條的仔蛇。當有威脅靠近時,牠會將自己藏到淤泥底下。除了利用遮蔽物之外,擁有超越體長的驚人彈跳力可以快速穿越、移動。遭受驚擾時,牠就會展現出牠飄忽不定,甚至橫向彈跳脫離現場的強大能力。另外有時也會留下散發惡臭的排泄物來嚇阻敵人。

此蛇為台灣後溝牙 (opistoglyphous= rear-fanged,請見附註 (1))毒蛇中最稀少的。牠擁有輕微的毒性,雖不致命,但是被咬到還是可能會造成紅腫、痲癢甚至出現過敏反應。 

另外在中醫的研究中,唐水蛇可被製為 蛇油。 

 

學名與俗名

Enhydris 新拉丁文來自希臘文 ενυδρις (en-hudris),指水獺;

chinensis 意思是"來自中國"。

唐水蛇、中國水蛇、泥蛇。

 

附註

(1) 1) "Opisthoglyphous" "(有後溝牙的蛇)指的是上顎後方進化出增大的牙齒方便更穩固的咬住獵物的蛇種,類似無溝槽(無毒牙)的蛇類,但是有微毒。後溝牙會隨著蛇嘴的閉合而斜上向上顎方向收入溝槽,並不會垂直往下導致戳傷自己。白話一點又稱 "rear-fanged snakes"。 (Source)

本種類似 鉛色水蛇(E. plumbea), 但是鉛色水蛇背面是沒有交雜黑色斑點的。

 

相關聯結

Enhydris chinensis caresheet

Reptile Database

翻譯:周信甫

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