ENHYDRIS PLUMBEA

Plumbeous Water Snake

(鉛色)水蛇

保育等級: 保育類 (第三級)

微毒

 

相關影片

鉛色水蛇吃泥鰍

 

更多美圖

桃園731號埤塘 鉛色水蛇 - 轉自小勛's blog

抓泥鰍的鉛色水蛇 - 轉自 自然生活記趣

像朝天眼金魚的鉛色水蛇 - 轉自 小青蛇的小秘密

鉛色水蛇 - 轉自小勛's blog

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家族

黃頜蛇科,水蛇亞科

Colubridae, subfamily Homalopsinae

 

最大體長 72 cm

 

台灣棲地分佈

台灣全島海拔500公尺以下低海拔區域,瀕危。 線上分佈地圖

 

世界棲地分佈

南中國(淮南,安徽,福建,廣東,廣西,湖南,湖北,江蘇,江蘇,浙江),台灣,北越南。

外觀描述 

Small snake; total length up to 72 cm. There are 15-19 (19 at mid-body) rows of smooth and glossy scales. Head is broad oval; body is short and stout, somewhat flattened; tail is short. Both nostrils (with a lid each) and eyes face upward. Eye is small, beady, and bulging; iris is red brown to dark brown and pupil is black and inconspicuous. Tongue is red, tinged with black, and fork tips are dark gray to black. The nasals are not separated; there is only one internasal. Upper head is uniform olive to dark olive green and the edge of mouth is dirty white or cream, with a distinct line of demarcation from upper head, extending from nose to corner of mouth and posteriorly along neck. Upper body and tail is uniform gray olive to dark olive green; the first to third scale rows are dirty white to dirty yellow and may be very lightly tinged with salmon. Ventral head is white to cream, usually possesses gray to dark gray margins. Ventral body is gray white to light dirty yellow, occasionally with horizontal lines of gray or diffuse black and a median series of dark spots; there may be a dark mid-ventral line at junction of subcaudals. Anal scale is divided and subcaudals are paired.

 

生態描述

水蛇亞科(Homalopsine)通常都被歸類在黃頜蛇科底下的亞科中,而所有的水蛇亞柯家族成員,在鼻孔都擁有瓣膜可以徹底隔絕水氣的入侵,以助於牠們在水下的生活。而大多數的成員在頭頂也都擁有朝天的小眼,特化擴大的上頜骨牙齒與溝巢,以及一些相同的解剖特徵。這些都可以說明牠們是來自同一個祖先。(Source)

鉛色水蛇通常在黃昏或夜間出沒於淡水中,像是池塘、水田或是溝渠中皆可發現牠們的身影。雖然說牠大部分地身活都在水中度過,但以同樣是水蛇亞科(Homalopsinae)的成員來說,牠在陸地上活動的時間算非常高的了。

魚和青蛙是它主要的食物來源。胎生。在晚春至夏天,母蛇會生下 2 - 19 條的仔蛇,每條仔蛇長約 12cm 。相對大多數蛇類來說,除非受到攻擊行為,不然鉛色水蛇的攻擊性不強。牠擁有超越體長的驚人彈跳力可以快速穿越、移動。遭受驚擾時,牠就會展現出牠飄忽不定,甚至橫向彈跳脫離現場的強大能力。

這是一個有著後溝牙(詳見附註 (1))的物種,並且有著輕微的毒性。牠的毒性對人類並不致命,但會有疼痛、麻癢、腫脹或是可能引發過敏的反應等。 

  

學名與俗名

Enhydris 來自 新拉丁文(New Latin), 轉自希臘語 ενυδρις (en-hudris), 水獺的意思;

plumbea 是指"鉛色"在此形容牠的顏色。

鉛色水蛇、水蛇、水泡蛇。

 

附註

(1) "Opisthoglyphous" "(有後溝牙的蛇)指的是上顎後方進化出增大的牙齒方便更穩固的咬住獵物的蛇種,類似無溝槽(無毒牙)的蛇類,但是有微毒。後溝牙會隨著蛇嘴的閉合而斜上向上顎方向收入溝槽,並不會垂直往下導致戳傷自己。白話一點又稱 "rear-fanged snakes". (Source)

本種類似 E. chinensis(唐水蛇) ,但是唐水蛇背面有交雜著一些黑色斑點。

FURTHER INFO

Reptile Database

Wikipedia

翻譯:周信甫

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