MACROPISTHODON RUDIS RUDIS

False Viper, False Habu

擬龜殼花 (ni3gui1ke3hua1)

保育等級: 非保育類

微毒

 

相關影片

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鄉野調查

龜殼花卡通版~

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家族

黃頷蛇科,Natricinae 亞科

Colubridae, subfamily Natricinae

 

最大體長 120 cm

 

台灣棲地分布

分布全台低中海拔區域。普遍。

 

世界棲地分布

中國(福建,雲南,四川,貴州,湖南,江西,浙江,廣西,廣東,安徽,湖南),台灣。

 

外觀描述

Medium-sized snake; total length up to 120 cm. There are 19-25 (23 at mid-body) rows of scales, which are heavily keeled. Head is broad, moderately triangular and moderately separated from neck; body is stout, slightly compressed or flattened; tail is moderately long. Eye is medium to large; iris is light brown with scattered areas of black, while anterior and posterior quarters of eye are dark brown, pupil is slightly oval to round, black, surrounded by irregular ring of light tan. Tongue is large, dark gray blue, fork tips light gray. Upper head is dark dirty brown to chocolate, with a prominent line of demarcation where the brown of the upper head meets the light brown, orange tinged side of head, extending from tip of nose along side of head to neck. Dorsal shields of head are large, but not distinct due to coloration and poorly developed sutures. The nuchal scales are heavily keeled. Upper body is brown to gray brown, may be tinted with bronze, interrupted by dark designs, variable in size, disposition and intensity of pigmentation. The irregular designs crossing the vertebral line in anterior half of body tend to lose continuity in the following part of body where they are replaced by roughly circular, separated designs along vertebral line. Other spots involving two to four scales occur on the sides of the body, and the posterior ones may fuse to form longitudinal lateral band. Ventral head is dirty white to dull orange gray. Ventral body is variable, dull dirty orange at neck with scattered dark gray to brown black pigment, overall color progressively darker posteriorly with mottled or marbled appearance in posterior parts of body. Anal scale is divided and subcaudals are paired.

 

生態描述

此蛇擁有後溝牙(見注示(1)),日夜間皆會出沒。喜歡棲息在山林底層、灌木林、草原或是臨水區域。牠主要以蟾蜍與青蛙為食,不過也會捕食小型蛇類、蜥蜴、昆蟲和蚯蚓。胎生。母蛇於夏末到秋季之間會產下每 12-27 條的幼蛇;每條剛出生的幼蛇大約長 13-20 cm 。當牠生氣或是激動時,會拼盡渾身解數把自己模仿的像是一條毒蛇 - 頭從近似三角形變成三角形,並且把身體壓縮成上下扁平,再擺出很兇猛的樣子做勢攻擊。

大--部分的黃頷蛇科蛇類的毒都被認為是對人體無害的。毒腺不大,或是毒性不強,再不然毒液輸出系統功能弱小。但是 M. r. rudis 有一篇相關的研究報告如下:

"This species was always considered to be 'just the next rear-fanged colubrid', but some things point to a completely different direction. Some animals from the Macropisthodon genus have caused some severe bites and are now rated, by some scientists, as potentially lethal. The fangs are extremely long and grooved and look like the fangs of a boomslang (Dispholidus typus), a lethal rear-fanged snake from Africa. Macropisthodon have very mobile fangs as well. The ingredients of the the venom are not known, but the effects are bleeding and neurotoxic symptoms. It might be compared to the venom of Rhabdophis species. In my opinion, and other people as well, an extremely dangerous colubrid to get bitten by. Bryan G. Fry states on his website and forum that this is one of the Asian colubrids that has to be handled with great care, almost as an elapid even. No antivenom is made." (Source)-

----------以下為參考譯文------------

"此類物種通常被認為是 '擁有後溝牙的無毒蛇',可是有些資料顯示並不完全是如此。現在有些科學家指出,遭到Macropisthodon (頸稜蛇) 屬螫咬且傷口嚴重的動物有可能有致命的危險。像是出沒在非洲的boomslang (Dispholidus typus)擁有很長的溝牙與溝牙槽。Macropisthodon屬底下有著多變的溝牙。蛇毒成分目前也不清楚,只知有出血與影響神經系統的症狀。毒性有點類似Rhabdophis這個物種。在我個人與一些其他人的綜合觀點來看,被這些俗稱的無毒蛇咬到還是非常危險的。Bryan G. Fry 在他的網站上指出把玩此種產自非洲的無毒蛇要如對待眼鏡蛇科蛇類般小心;因為這是沒有血清的。"(Source)

 

學名與俗名

Macropisthodon; macro 的意思是 "大的", opisthodon 是指"後溝牙", 形容他擁有大的後溝牙 (請見附註);

rudis 是來自拉丁文意思是 "粗糙的,簡略的,不精通的"。

擬龜殼花 - 意指牠模擬 蝮亞科(pitviper) 龜殼花(Protobothrops mucrosquamatus)、頸稜蛇、偽蝮蛇。

 

附註

 (1) "Opisthoglyphous"(有後溝牙的蛇)指的是上顎後方進化出增大的牙齒方便更穩固的咬住獵物的蛇種,類似無溝槽(無毒牙)的蛇類,但是有微毒。後溝牙會隨著蛇嘴的閉合而斜上向上顎方向收入溝槽,並不會垂直往下導致戳傷自己。白話一點又稱 "rear-fanged snakes". (Source)

 

相關連結

Reptile Database

翻譯:周信甫

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