NAJA ATRA

Chinese Cobra

眼鏡蛇

保育等級: 保育類 (第三級)

劇毒!!

 

相關影片

眼鏡蛇的經典防禦姿態

眼鏡蛇吞蟾蜍

香港森林裡示範拍眼鏡蛇與如何調整蛇的角度取得較好的效果 3

 

鄉野調查

墓園裡的眼鏡蛇

眼鏡蛇

印度眼鏡蛇?

眼鏡蛇與相機包

眼鏡寶貝

眼鏡瘋狂

Hello Kitty 眼鏡蛇

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家族 蝙蝠蛇科,亞種。 Elapidae, subfamily Elapinae

 

最長尺寸 200 cm

 

台灣棲地分布

全台本島與馬祖海拔1000公尺以下皆可見,但北部較少。(分布地圖)

 

世界棲地分布

中國(安徽,四川,福建,廣東,廣西,貴州,海南,湖南,湖北,浙江),台灣,北越南,北寮國。

 

外觀描述

Medium to large snake; total length up to 200 cm. There are 15-27 (19-21 at mid-body and 23-27 at neck) rows of smooth and glossy scales; the dorsolateral scales are strongly oblique. Head is broad, roughly triangular and slightly distinct from neck; body is moderately heavy, slightly flattened, and may be considerably flattened when angry; tail is short. Nostrils large and conspicuous. Eye is medium-sized; iris is dark dirty yellow dappled with dark gray black to blue-black and pupil is round, jet black. There are no loreals. Tongue is dark gray to blue-black, with stem possibly lighter in color than forks. Fangs are rigid, short to medium length, and located anterior to middle of upper law. Upper head is light gray tan to dark gray-black, usually the same color as upper body and tail; sides of head are lighter in color. Individuals bearing other colors in dorsal surface, such as white, yellow or brown may be found. There may be irregular or scattered crosslines of white to light gray along upper body and a spectacle-like mark on the upper face of the expanded neck (hood); however, the designs on the hood may range from partial figures to non-symmetrical patterns. Ventral head and neck are white to light gray or light orange; there may be one pair of small dark spots followed by a dark transverse band on the ventral face of hood. The color of ventral body and tail may be white to gray, dark gray mottled with white, or blackish. The populations in different geographic regions of Taiwan reveal a unique composition of ventral coloration: the eastern population is exclusively blackish (100%), the central and southern populations are mainly white to gray (both 80%), and the proportions of blackish and white-gray morphs in the northern population are 60% and 30%, respectively. Anal scale is entire, and subcaudals are paired..

 

生態描述

眼鏡蛇可以說是世界上最容易讓人正確辨別出種類的動物;大部分的人只要看到他的防衛姿態一眼就可以輕易的辨認出來: 高舉前半身約身長三分之一的部分,然後輕微的搖晃,並且擴張頸部呈現寬扁的"飯匙"狀 ─ 當你面對一條擺出上述姿態的眼鏡蛇時,不用懷疑,牠已經準備好隨時可以反擊了。

眼鏡蛇在白天與黃昏皆會出現,但是在炎熱的天氣下,牠還是喜歡黃昏才出來覓食。牠平時棲息在平原、農田、還有山區;有時候也會出現在民宅附近。食性廣泛,會以魚、青蛙、蟾蜍、蜥蜴、蛇、鳥、鳥蛋、還有其牠囓齒類動物為食 ─ 事實上,任何牠吞的下的生物都可能是目標。眼鏡蛇在春末夏初交配;母蛇會在夏季產下一窩 7-25 枚的卵,每枚卵長 4.2-5.4cm 寬 2.6-3.1cm ,並且有護卵的行為。初生的幼蛇大約長 20 cm 左右

休息的時候,眼鏡蛇的頭部與頸部區分並不明顯。但是當牠遭受到威脅或侵擾,牠會迅速的抬高前半身,並且脹大其頸部皮褶,攻擊的同時還會發出很大的嘶嘶聲。身體有時也會展開,擺出體型示威。

眼鏡蛇是劇毒蛇類;被螫咬後的齒痕很難被發現。牠的毒液混合了神經毒與心臟毒素,50%的致死率大概只要 0.53mg/kg 的毒液量。眼鏡蛇可以一次對同一目標釋放出 250mg 的毒液。當心臟毒素感染細胞後;傷者將感受極大的痛苦,傷口持續的發出疼痛感,組織器官也會迅速的壞死。不過,直得慶幸的是經由血清的治療後,死亡率非常的低。特別要注意的是 ─ 某些品種會噴射毒液,雖然準頭不高,但仍要小心。

 

學名與俗名

Naja : 來自印度語 "naga" ,蛇的意思;

atra : 意指蛇的顏色 - 從拉丁文 "ater" 演變而來,黑或黑暗的。

眼鏡蛇、飯匙倩、蝙蝠蛇、脹頸蛇、膨頸蛇、扁頸蛇、五毒蛇。

附註

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相關連結

Reptile Database

Wikipedia

翻譯:周信甫

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