PTYAS MUCOSA

Dhaman (Oriental) Ratsnake

保育等級: 非保育類

無毒

 

相關影面

正在吞食蟾蜍的南蛇

 

鄉野調查

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家族

黃頜蛇科、Colubrinae 亞科。

Colubridae, subfamily Colubrinae

 

最大長度 360 cm

 

台灣棲地分布

廣泛分布在台灣(南部較多)、金門、馬祖海拔一千公尺以下區域。(分布地圖)

 

世界棲地分布

阿富汗,伊朗,土庫曼斯坦,前蘇聯,尼泊爾,巴基斯坦,孟加拉國,印度(馬哈拉施特拉邦,卡納塔克邦,安達曼群島),斯里蘭卡,南 中國(浙江,湖北,江西,安徽,福建,廣東,廣西,海南,雲南,西藏,貴州,四川),台灣,緬甸,柬埔寨,寮國,西 馬來西亞,泰國,越南,印度尼西亞(蘇門答臘,爪哇)。

 

外觀描述

Large snake; total length up to 360 cm. There are 14-19 (21) rows of smooth or feebly keeled scales. Head is oval to slightly triangular; body is slender to moderately heavy and tail is long. Eye is large; iris is dark brown to brown black dappled with dirty yellow to tan and pupil is large, round jet black, surrounded by ill-defined ring of dirty yellow. Nostril is prominent. The supraocular forms laterally protruding shelf over eye. There are 2-5 loreals at each side. Tongue is large, black to blue-black, with often dark gray fork tips. Upper head is uniform light to dark brown; the labials are distinct due to lines of black pigment on posterior margin of each scale. Upper body and tail are light to dark brown while some scales have dark brown or black margins and are arranged in various designs; the majority tends to form irregular ill-defined narrow bands around posterior body and tail. Juveniles are olive yellow dorsally, and bear transverse rows of white spots across body anteriorly. Ventral head is cream to light gray; some scales possess indistinct black posterior margins. Ventral body is cream to light gray, with pigmented areas on posterior margins that are progressively larger and darker in posterior part of body. Anal scale is divided and subcaudals are paired, distinctly marked dark brown to black.

 

生態描述

日行性半樹棲蛇類,通常喜歡棲息在森林底層、農田以及溼地,也可能出現在人類居住的區域。以青蛙、蟾蜍、蛇、蜥蜴、鳥、鼠還有小型哺乳類為食。獵食方式跟其牠的無毒蛇較為不同,咬住獵物後並不會用身體纏繞絞殺致死,而是將獵物用力的頂在地面上,或是利用石頭甚至其它尖硬的物體,使獵物窒息而死。牠們會在春末夏初交配,母蛇於夏季到秋初 之間產下每窩6 - 15 枚的卵。每枚卵約4 - 5cm x 2.5 - 4cm 的大小。幼蛇大約會在兩個月左右孵化,每條全長約36 -41cm。

南蛇行動快速且容易激動。受到威脅時,牠會抬高頭部、撐大頸部並且發出連續的嘶嘶聲。當被人捕獲時,牠會用力的纏繞並且試圖螫咬捕捉者。人工飼養的環境下,一但受到挑釁仍然有可能出現這樣的行為,常常因為試圖攻擊經過的物體而造成吻端受傷。一些爬蟲學家 (Harry Greene是其中之一) 認為無論是膨脹頸部或是發出嘶嘶聲,皆有可能是模仿眼鏡王蛇 (King Cobra - Ophiophagus hannah)。

 

學名與俗名

Ptyas 是來自古希臘的一個有關蛇毒噴入男子眼睛的傳說;

mucosus/mucosa 是來自拉丁文,有 "黏液" (來源不詳)的意思。

南蛇、華鼠蛇、華錦蛇、水南蛇。

附註  

 

相關連結

Reptile Database

Wikipedia

翻譯:周信甫

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