SINOMICRURUS SAUTERI

Taiwan Coral Snake

梭德氏帶紋赤蛇

保育等級: 保育類 (第二級)

劇毒!

 

相關影片 ---

 

更多美圖

南台灣的梭德氏帶紋赤蛇 - 轉自 自然生活記趣

野外探險 梭德氏帶紋赤蛇 - 轉自 志明的蛇王國

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家族

蝙蝠蛇科, Elapinae 亞科

Elapidae, subfamily Elapinae

 

最大體長 98 cm

 

台灣棲地分布

罕見蛇種。分部台灣中部與南部海拔 500-1500 公尺。

 

世界棲地分布

台灣特有種。

 

外觀描述

 

Small snake; total lenght is up to 98 cm. It has 13-15 rows of scales, which are smooth, glossy, and iridescent. Head is broadly rectangular to square and not distinct from neck; body is slim, round; tail is short and ends in a strongly chitinized, rigid tip. Eye is medium-sized; iris is dark gray to black, indistinct since it blends with dark color of head, and pupil is round, black. There are no loreals. Tongue is dull red to flesh, with diffuse gray fork tips. Fangs are small and in anterior part of upper jaw. Upper head is dark brown black, mottled with light brown in forehead; there is a broad cream or white band across head behind eyes. The supralabials are some white, some black, or mottled. Upper body is dark brown, crimson, and distinctly marked with three black longitudinal stripes from neck to tip of tail; the mid-dorsal stripe is narrower than the lateral ones. Ventral head and neck are white to dirty white, sometimes mottled with black. The infralabials bear distinct lines of black pigment at junction of anterior-most scales. Ventral body and tail are white to dirty white, with irregular size and irregularly distributed spots or cross bands of black. Anal scale is divided and subcaudals are paired.

 

生態描述

Sinomicrurus 是一種屬於有毒的 elapids 底下的種名,例如 珊瑚蛇(Oriental) 和 東方珊瑚蛇 (Eastern Coral Snakes), 在台灣有三個特有種:羽鳥氏帶紋赤蛇(S. hatori), 梭德氏帶紋赤蛇(S. sauteri) 以及環紋赤蛇 (S. macclellandi)

梭德氏帶紋赤蛇通常是為夜間出沒,可是白天也有機率出現在陰影區的卵生蛇類。喜歡棲息在山區林木底層、石縫與腐植堆中。侵略性不強,只有極少數的記載有出現過攻擊行為;但是牠的毒液含有強烈的神經毒素,所以仍然有致命的危險性。由於資料不足,所以幾乎沒有人了解牠的生活習性。不過可以猜測牠的主食是蜥蜴與小型蛇類。另外在遭受威脅時,牠會舉起牠尖尖的尾巴戳刺威脅者。

 

學名與俗名

Sinomicrurus 是一個的複合組合詞Sin 是來自拉丁語 "中國的", mikros 是來自希臘語意思是"小的",ura 則是 "尾巴" 描述牠尖銳而短小的尾巴。

sauteri :得自於在台的昆蟲學家 Hans Sauter (漢斯●梭德氏),此蛇種的模式標本是由他所採集。

梭德氏帶紋赤蛇、梭德氏華珊瑚蛇。

附註

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相關連結

Reptile Database

Coral Snakes

一篇有關亞洲與美國眼鏡蛇科的種群發展比較文獻 - Higher-level phylogeny of Asian and American coralsnakes, their placement within the Elapidae (Squamata), and the systematic affinities of the enigmatic Asian coralsnake Hemibungarus calligaster (Wiegmann, 1834)

The phylogenetic relationships of Asian coral snakes (Elapidae: Calliophis and Maticora) based on morphological and molecular characters (Herpetologica 57: 233-245), Slowinski, J.B., J. Boundy & R. Lawson "analysed the phylogeny of oriental coral snakes (together with New World coral snakes) by means of both morphological characters and mitochondrial DNA sequences. The generic classification of these snakes has been subject to confusion and controversy for some time, with some species being assigned to the genus Hemibungarus, but without much robust evidence (see comments on Elapidae 1999 page). The present study identified three main evolutionary groupings within Oriental coral snakes, which the authors recognise as distinct genera:
(i) Calliophis, a tropical Asian genus including the species C. beddomei, C. bibroni, C. gracilis, C. maculiceps, C. melanurus, C. nigrescens, C. intestinalis and C. bivirgatus. Note that Maticora is treated as a synonym of Calliophis.


(ii) Hemibungarus, which contains the single Philippine species H. calligaster.


(iii) Sinomicrurus, a new genus, which contains a series of subtropical species: S. hatori, S. japonicus, S. kelloggi, S. macclellandi and S. sauteri. Both molecular and morphological studies support the hypothesis that this assemblage constitutes the sister group to the New World coral snakes.

-------------以下為簡述上文摘要-------------

由於在亞洲的珊瑚蛇分類非常混亂,所以並沒有很準確的分類法。而目前暫定亞洲珊瑚蛇的進化有三種方向:

(i) Calliophis - 分屬在熱帶的種類,包含C. beddomei, C. bibroni, C. gracilis, C. maculiceps, C. melanurus, C. nigrescens, C. intestinalis 與 C. bivirgatus.

ps.Maticora被視為與Calliophis相同。

(ii) Hemibungarus - 目前只有菲律賓有一種H. calligaster。

(iii) Sinomicrurus - 是一個新確立的新屬,包含了一系列亞熱帶的種類:S. hatori, S. japonicus, S. kelloggi, S. macclellandi and S. sauteri.在生物分子學和生物型態學上的研究支持了這個新世界珊瑚蛇的種類確立。

(Source)

翻譯:周信甫

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