VIRIDOVIPERA STEJNEGERI STEJNEGERI

Chinese Green Tree Viper, Bamboo Viper

(赤尾)青竹絲

保育等級: 非保育類

有毒!

 

相關影片

偶然在樹梢發現的赤尾青

25cm長的赤尾青竹絲在枝條間遊走

鄉野調查

白日赤尾青竹絲

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家族

蝮蛇科;Crotalinae 亞科(蝮亞科)

Viperidae ; subfamily Crotalinae (Pitvipers)

 

最大體長 90 cm

 

台灣棲地分布

廣泛分布台灣全島與蘭嶼1500 m 以下低海拔地區。

 

世界棲地分布

中國(雲南以北到甘肅東南,包括吉林在內東到江蘇,南到海南,),台灣,尼泊爾,印度(錫金,阿薩姆),緬甸,泰國東南,越南

 

外觀描述

 

Small snake; total length up to 90 cm. There are 15-29 (21 at mid-body) rows of scales, which are keeled and rough. Head is broad, roughly triangular, covered with small and smooth scales, and distinct from neck; body is stout or robust; tail is small. There is a prominent angular ridge from upper eye to end of nose, and a prominent pit three to five times the size of the nostril between eye and nostril. Eye is medium-sized, high on head, forms slight bulge on upper head; iris is distinctly rusty brown or brick red, flecked with cream, and pupil is vertically elliptical, black, with narrow margin of cream or light orange. Tongue is dark gray to black, with stem lighter than fork tips. Fangs are large, movable, in sheath in anterior part of upper jaw. Upper head and body are uniform dark green to chartreuse, while sides of head and ventral surface are light yellow green to pale green. Tail is variable, may be same green as rest of body, but usually tinged dorsally with dull diffuse rusty red or brown. Frequently a a white or light cream line can be found extending from the lower edge of eye posteriorly over the corner of mouth, and in males white line may be bordered by another brick-red or rust-colored line. A white stripe, bordered ventrally with dark red extends along the first body scale row in most males, whereas there is no such dark red stripe in most females. Very few individuals are without lateral stripes. Anal scale is entire, and subcaudals are paired.

 

生態描述

此夜行性樹棲 蝮亞科 蛇類經常被人在山區溪流或路邊溝渠旁遇到休息或覓食的個體。青蛙是牠最愛的美食,也會獵捕小型哺乳動物、鳥類和蜥蜴。母蛇於夏季產下 2-15 條幼蛇,幼蛇體長約 25cm。大約一年可成熟。牠有一條有力的尾巴幫助牠攀爬、纏繞,並且再遇敵時可震動發出警告

雖然牠不是攻擊性很強的生物,但牠是台灣咬人紀錄最多的蛇類。因為體色與植物相近,通常農人們或是野外工作者常常忽略而觸動到休息中的赤尾青竹絲,導致被螫咬的情況發生。毒液中含有出血性毒素,被咬的傷口會腫脹並且出血。由於鄉村地帶發生頻率高,所以農村附近的醫療機構必須特別準備相對應的抗毒血清。

赤尾青竹絲擁有很高的抗寒能力(最低可在 14 C 的環境下活動), 在北台灣即使在冬季仍然可以在野外找到不少個體。特別一提的是牠們通常喜歡在雨中或雨後出來活動。

 

學名與俗名

Viridovipera 意思是"綠色的蝮蛇";

stejnegeri: 根據 Leonhard Hess Stejneger (1851-1943) 的名子來命名的。他是一位在挪威出生的爬蟲學家,後來再1881年移居至美國並且在1889擔任史密森學會(Smithsonian Institution)的爬行動物館館長。 in 1889.

赤尾青竹絲、赤尾鮐、竹葉青、青竹蛇、焦尾巴。

 

附註 赤尾青竹絲是台灣最常見的毒蛇,並且也是台灣唯一沒法律保護的毒蛇。

 

相關連結

Reptile Database

Wikipedia

翻譯:周信甫

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